Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Biography of Steve Wozniak, Apple Computer Co-Founder

Biography of Steve Wozniak, Apple Computer Co-Founder Steve Wozniak (born Stephan Gary  Wozniak; August 11, 1950) is the co-founder of Apple Computer and is credited with being the main designer of the first Apples. A noted philanthropist who helped found the Electronic Frontier Foundation, Wozniak was the founding sponsor of the Tech Museum, the Silicon Valley Ballet, and the Children’s Discovery Museum of San Jose. Fast Facts: Steve Wozniak Known For: Apple Computer co-founder with Steve Jobs and Ronald Wayne and the main designer of the first Apple computersBorn: August 11, 1950 in Los Gatos, CaliforniaEducation: Attended  De Anza College and the University of California, Berkeley; awarded a degree from Berkeley in 1986Spouse(s): Alice Robertson (m. 1976–1980), Candice Clark (m. 1981–1987), Suzanne Mulkern (m. 1990–2004), Janet Hill (m. 2008)Foundations Started: Apple Computer, Inc., Electronic Freedom FrontierAwards and Honors: National Medal of Technology, Heinz Award for Technology, The Economy and Employment, Inventors Hall of Fame inducteeChildren: 3 Early Life Wozniak (known as the Woz) was born on August 11, 1950, in Los Gatos, California, and grew up in the Santa Clara Valley, now known as Silicon Valley. Wozniaks father was an engineer for Lockheed and always inspired his sons curiosity for learning with a few science fair projects. He gave Steve his first crystal set at the age of 6. Wozniak got his ham radio license in the sixth grade and built an adder/subtractor machine to calculate binary arithmetic in the eighth grade. As a young man, Wozniak was a bit of a prankster/genius and wrote his first programs in his own version of FORTRAN at the University of Colorado but was put on probation for computer abuse- essentially, he spent the computing budget for the whole class five times over. He designed his first computer called the Cream Soda Computer, which was comparable to the Altair, by the time he was 18. He began courses at the University of California, Berkeley, where he was introduced to Steve Jobs by a mutual friend. Jobs, still in high school and four years younger, would become Wozniaks best friend and business partner. Their first project together was the Blue Box, which allowed the user to make long-distance phone calls for free; Wozniak himself thinks he should be remembered by posterity for running the first dial-a-joke service in the San Francisco Bay area. Early Career and Research In 1973, Wozniak dropped out of college to begin designing calculators at Hewlett Packard, but he continued to work on side projects. One of those projects would become the Apple-I. Wozniak built the first design for the Apple-I in his office at Hewlett Packard; he worked closely with an informal users group known as the Homebrew Computer Club, sharing schematics and giving away his code. Jobs had no input into the original build but was the visionary of the project, discussing enhancements and coming up with some investment money. They signed partnership papers on April 1, 1976, and began selling the Apple-I at $666 per computer. That same year, Wozniak began to design the Apple-II. In 1977, the Apple-II was revealed to the public at the West Coast Computer Faire. It was an astonishing success, even at the very steep price of $1,298, selling 100,000 units in three years. Jobs opened their first business office at Cupertino and Wozniak finally quit his job at H-P.  Wozniak has been credited by everyone, including Steve Jobs, as the main designer on the Apple I and Apple II. The Apple II was the first commercially successful line of personal computers, featuring a central processing unit, a keyboard, color graphics, and a floppy disk drive. Leaving Apple On February 7, 1981, Wozniak crashed his single-engine aircraft in Scotts Valley, California, an event that caused Wozniak to temporarily lose his memory. On a deeper level, it certainly changed his life. After the accident, Wozniak left Apple and returned to Berkeley to finish his degree in electrical engineering/computer science- but dropped out again because he found the curriculum confining. He was awarded a bachelors degree anyway in 1986 and has since been awarded numerous degrees from institutions such as Kettering and Michigan State University. Wozniak did return to work for Apple for a brief period between 1983 and 1985. During that time, he greatly influenced the design of the Apple Macintosh computer, the first successful home computer with a mouse-driven graphical interface. He still has a ceremonial role in the company, saying, I keep a tiny residual salary to this day because thats where my loyalty should be forever. He founded the UNUSON (Unite Us In Song) corporation and put on two rock festivals. The enterprise lost money. In 1990, he joined Mitchell Kapor in establishing the Electronic Frontier Foundation,  the leading nonprofit organization defending civil liberties in the digital world. In 1987, he created the first universal remote. In 2007, Wozniak published his autobiography, iWoz: From Computer Geek to Cult Icon, which was on the best seller list of The New York Times. Between 2009 and 2014, he was hired as chief scientist for Fusion-io, Inc., a computer hardware and software company that was acquired by SanDisk Corporation. He was later the chief scientist at the data virtualization company Primary Data, which shut down in 2018. Marriage and Family Steve Wozniak has been married four times, to Alice Robertson (m. 1976–1980), Candice Clark (m. 1981–1987), Suzanne Mulkern (m. 1990–2004), and currently Janet Hill (m. 2008). He has three children, all from his marriage with Candice Clark. Awards Wozniak was awarded the National Medal of Technology by President Ronald Reagan in 1985, the highest honor bestowed on America’s leading innovators. In 2000, he was inducted into the Inventors Hall of Fame and was awarded the prestigious Heinz Award for Technology, The Economy and Employment for â€Å"single-handedly designing the first personal computer and for then redirecting his lifelong passion for mathematics and electronics toward lighting the fires of excitement for education in grade school students and their teachers. Sources Kubilay, Ibrahim Atakan. The Founding of Apple and the Reasons Behind Its Success. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences 195 (2015): 2019–28. Print.Linzmayer, Owen W. Apple Confidential 2.0. San Francisco, California: No Starch Press, 2004. Print.Love, Dylan. 8 Reasons Why Woz Still Matters. Tech. Business Insider September 3 2013. Web.Owad, Tom. Chapter 1- the History of the Apple I. Apple I Replica Creation: Back to the Garage. Burlington: Syngress, 2005. 1–22. Print.Stix, Harriet. A UC Berkeley Degree Is Now the Apple of Steve Wozniaks Eye. Los Angeles Times, May 14, 1986. Web.Wozniak, Steve, and Gina Smith. iWoz: Computer Geek to Cult Icon. New York: W.W. Norton Company, 2006. Print.

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Research Methodologies Applied To Evaluate The Impact Of Stimulant Assignment

Research Methodologies Applied To Evaluate The Impact Of Stimulant Energy Drink - Assignment Example Methodology Collection Of Data The first thing for any study is the process of data collection and the method of sampling. Data is collected on the basis of sampling which can be randomized, or purposive with respect to the variable that has to be analyzed. Randomized data means each individual will have equal probability to be included in the sample. Purposive data is considered by some criteria fixed by the experimenter (effects of a drug on diabetic patients).Sampling makes sure that the results are based on non biased assumptions and simply random sampling reduces the chance of bias. So in this study we will fix inclusion criteria with a purposive sampling- that means people who use computers whether desktops and laptops will be included and the others in the population will not be included- thus our purposive sampling will narrow it to population of computer users. The exclusion criteria would be non computer users and having vision problems other than technology related. Data will be collected through a set of questionnaire method:- a. Energy severity score: Rate your self energy on a scale of 1 to 10( more energy feeling more score) b. Rate your sleep scale from 1-1 0 ( more score more awake) We would see then whether our distribution obtained is symmetrical or asymmetrical and conform to normal distribution and whether undue weightage has been given to extreme values during data collection. Collected data can have a symmetrical representation and in that case mean, median and mode will be the same for a particular variable and when these value changes it is called asymmetrical and this measure is called skewness, On the other hand there can be incidences such the data is collected more on the upper and lower sides of a variable(tails) it will be called leptokurtic data and if the middle values of a variable are collected it is called platykurtic data. In the former the distribution looks pointed and in later it has a plateau shaped. Ideally if a data is ideally collected then the curve should look mesokurtic with frequency of the scores evenly distributed at upper and lower and middle limits. This is called a normal distribution. The normal distribution has a unit area of one and this is helpful to measure testing of hypothesis.(Chance,2005). Thus the need for data representation becomes important Analysis of Data Testing of Hypothesis: We will take the mean scores of sleepiness and energy in both the groups and go for a testing of hypothesis Data can be analyzed for statistical significance based on the normal distribution. This means if the computed probability value or p value as measured from t test or Anova is

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Chinese Economic Reform Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Chinese Economic Reform - Essay Example This led to a situation, where by 1978 seventy five percent of the industrial output was state controlled, and there was hardly any private enterprise worth mentioning. The foreign trade of China was restricted, and consisted of only those items that were not available, or could not be produced in the country. The economy remained stagnant and inefficient, as a result of the policies followed by the Chinese government. There was hardly any competition, and the price and production controls by the government led to severe distortion of the economy. All these factors led to the living standards being extremely low in comparison to all its neighbors. In 1978, Deng Xiaoping took over the reigns of the country, which saw the start of the reform era. The realization of the poor economic state of the country, and the need for economic reforms to revitalize the country, and maintain its strategic importance caused the Chinese government to reconsider its policy of centrally controlled economy, and initiate economic reforms. The Chinese government set about a gradual reform process in the belief that this would cause significant economic growth, and raise the living standards in China, and restore its importance in a region, where its traditional rivals like Japan and South Korea, were displaying steady economic growth, and as result boosting their relevance in the region. (Morrison, M. Wayne, 2006). The economic reform in China has two sides to it. The positive side of the reform has seen greater efficiency in the economy, which has led to the boosting of output, and increased resources for even more investment in the economy. The Chinese have traditionally demonstrated a high rate of savings, and the boost in the economy has seen these savings rates rise to forty percent of the GDP, making the domestic savings rate in China rank among the highest in the world. The GDP of China for 2005 was estimated at $1.9 trillion, and its per capita GDP at

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Follow That Dream Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Follow That Dream - Essay Example The article â€Å"Free to innovate† by Christine Canabou illustrates how one company, the Fallon, experienced substantial changes in its life after being purchased by the global advertising giant Publicis Group SA. Notwithstanding its chairman fears for the employees to be left their â€Å"home† because it was sold out, the company made all possible to prove that its soul was not going to change. And the company showed that by creating a manifesto that called for breakthrough ideas, such as â€Å"to unlock the entrepreneurial hostages within the agency†. New ideas were transformed into a full-blown company initiative- a â€Å"Dream Catchers† that gave employees license to be a little selfish and make their dreams come true sooner. One year after the initiative was launched, hundred staffers achieved their dreams (visited museums, ran with bulls etc.). The acquisition was as a strategic move the target of which was to help to achieve ambitious goals that th e company could not probably achieve on its own. Today Fallon  is a full-service advertising agency with the headquarter in Minneapolis with numerous awards and open marketing boundaries, intranet  with the same companys quirky humor, full-fledged division of interactive consulting group and redesigned  flagship office that brought a new way of working and grouping people. The article shows the overall positive picture of the acquisition and does not show any pitfalls that usually happen within the organization. The acquisition is about a change and it is obvious that the Fallon agency had certain changes in the top team. New arrivals and changes in the administrative efficiencies could not stay unnoticed by the staffers. While top teams work closely on key areas in order to improve them, the other areas may be left inactive. While acquisition offers the possibility for entering new markets and expand the company with its portfolio, some cultural issues may cause problems

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Computerised Stock Control System

Computerised Stock Control System Introduction The Enterprise Networking assignment is based on the computerised stock control system. This assignment is about how to implement a new online book company called â€Å"Amazing Books†. â€Å"Amazing Books† company is a new online book company that will be selling books via a website. The website represents the books that are in the company’s warehouse. It also contains the information of the books and the information provided to the customers to order the books they want. It is linking with company’s stock control system. The stock will be regularly recorded and updated based upon the sales record. When a customer fills an order form, he or she has to choose the items and the delivery information. When the company receives the order, it delivered the packaged books to the local depot of a courier company. The online book company also implements its computerised inventory control system in the warehouse. This system includes order processing, recording new entry of books, despatching books to the courier firm, and flagging stock reorder levels up. So, the company will investigate the websites of stock control system as sample and implement its own one. Besides, the company will create a local area network (LAN) for in the warehouse by using appropriate media and topology to carry out its processes well. The company also has a plan to deliver the ordered stock items from the warehouse to the delivery company successfully by using suitable vehicles which contains hardware and software for security management. The last plan is to manage a security control system in order to prevent the theft of staff themselves and to regulate the stock reorder level by the time theft occurs. The network administrator or manager of the â€Å"Amazing Books† online book company will be investigating the book websites and computerised stock control system websites of other companies. He or she is also looking forward to finding the delivery management system and security management system on the web. Then he or she will be writing a report (with recommendations) how to implement theirs company in order to successfully set up. Task 1 Amazing Books Company is one that wants to manage themselves as an online book sales company. They will sell their books via the internet. So, they want to develop a website which will display information about their books. Before it is developed, they examine three websites of the online book companies that sell theirs via the internet. The first investigated website is www.bookshopofindia.com. In home page, the pictures of some books are presented. When the pictures are doubled-clicked, the summaries of each book are displayed. It contains other information such as authors’ names, ISBN number, price and numbers of pages. On the left-hand side of the home page, the subjects of the books that are sold in this website are listed. The subjects contain religions, arts, commerce, computer technology, children books and so on. To order the books, customers can send e-mails, but they can only make payment by using bank account of Corporation bank and Punjab bank. The second examined website is www.boomerangbooks.com. In home page, some pictures of normal books are placed on the right side. In the top, some special ones such as books for Mother’s day are put. In the middle of the page, some are advertised by showing pictures, authors’ names, and short descriptions of them. If the pictures are double-clicked to investigate, the pictures of the books’ covers and summaries of them with authors’ names appear. ISBN, format, number of pages, publishers, publish date and languages are also shown. On the right side, normal price and discount price are compared. On the left side of the home page, the site arranges some categories to browse for books according to book categories, bestsellers, books from movies, and book awards, etc. It also places book contents. In home page, it ranges a menu called â€Å"Boomerang Books Bulletin†. If a user signs up in this form, he or she can get a $5 book voucher and 20% discount when discounts days are on. To order the books, the site displays its phone number, e-mail address, and fax number. Thus, customers can order by phone, e-mail or fax but they can pay only Australian dollars. The third one that is observed to get displaying books information is www.cherrythitsar.org . This website is the one where users can get e-books. On the home page, there is a list that describes the categories that users can download. These categories contain Myanmar free e-books, Myanmar novels, Myanmar newspapers and so on. If a customer wants to get them, he or she has to make an account by entering user name and password. Then he or she can get them. After investigating these websites that provide information for online book selling, â€Å"Amazing Books†, the online book company, is implementing their website. On the top of the home page, the photos of the books that are sold for the memorial days will be presented. They will be sold by gifting suitable discounts. On the left-hand side of the home page, the catalogues of the books will be exhibited in order to search books by the categories the customers want. The catalogues will queue the lists of the books according to book categories, bestsellers, books from movies, and book awards, etc. If the photos of the books in home page are double-clicked, the summaries of the books with books’ titles, sorts of books, ISBNs, authors’ names, publishers, publishing date, number of editions, and number of pages, etc. will be shown. Under the every page of site, there will be company’s address and ordering information will situate. Ordering information will include phone numbers, fax numbers and company’s e-mail address. So, customers can order books by ringing a phone call, or making order by fax, or sending an e-mail. To order by e-mail customers must fill chosen items into the shopping basket that is on the right side of the home page. Then they have to enter their phone numbers and addresses (including postal code). They can enter their bank accounts or credit card accounts to order. Task 2 There are many stock items that are stored in the warehouse of the â€Å"Amazing Books† online book store. The stock control system in warehouse is linked with the company’s website so customers can view the books that are in warehouse via the website. If they want to order books, the will their personal information including delivery addresses, postal codes and bank or credit accounts. When customers make books order via website, the company will inform the staff of the warehouse. The warehouse staff checks the level of stock items and reply to the main server. And the server keeps the information update and let the customers know information to the website. Then the company will deliver the books to a delivery team. And then the courier company will deliver books according to the customers’ addresses and postal codes. To carry out these processes successfully, the book store needs a proper inventory control system. So, they gather information for stock control system by exploring the websites which represent their computerised stock control systems. Required information for recommendations The first and second investigated websites show their online stock control systems. They show their product information and other associated one. Customers can search and browse they want and they can order them by e-mails. The company that creates the first website is using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) readers for recording the new items for the stock. The company also explains its delivery service for ordered items. The second website uses barcode reader. It describes their control system of balance levels of the stock and alerting the flagging up reorder system by using the stock control management software. The third and the fourth one are the websites that sell software applications for computerised inventory control management system. They give the detailed information of how to use their software. Both of them are produced to run the functions of recording customers’ order, purchasing, items entry, auditing, receiving, shipping, transferring, reporting and security management, etc. Among them, the former one is used with barcode reader and the latter one with RFID for recording new stock items for the system. Customers can buy their software by entering their e-mail addresses, and bank or credit account numbers in these websites Methods and hardware for recording stock entry which are in warehouse After investigating four websites, â€Å"Amazing Books† implements its computerised stock control system. First of all, they make purchasing books from many other sources. Then the books are put in containers which contain RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags and the containers are carried by suitable vehicles. When they arrived to the warehouse of the company, the RFID tags are checked by RFID readers which transmit the series of digital identities of the books wirelessly. The tag readers detect the packages or containers which contains several book items. The RFID readers can check each entire container simultaneously and enter data into the server computer using special stock control management software for inventory control. So, the right data in database of the server can keep updating. Being linked the server with the website of the company, the information of the books in web pages is automatically updated. (c) Methods and hardware for order processing To order the book items, the customers have to fill the order form. In this form, the customers must fill their information that contains their addresses and postal codes and delivery fees (which price ranges depend on countries) by means of bank or credit account numbers. After that, they can order books via website of the company. When the company receives orders from customers, they register information of customers and orders in Order file. They check concerned master and transaction files to know how many numbers of which stock items are ordered. They also interrogate stock levels in the warehouse using RFID readers and make records of sending items. These records are entered into the server to update stock information. They then display that information in the website that is linked with server of the company. So, customers can see whether their ordered items are sent to them or not. (d) Methods and hardware for recording despatched items Their next procedure is to deliver the ordered books to a local courier company. Before they send, they pick books up from the warehouse and pack them into specific packages or containers which consist of RFID tags which will help the courier firm easy to check them. Then they deliver them to the delivery firms by appropriate vehicles. When the books arrive, the courier companies check the RFID tags of packages or containers by using RFID readers. Then they start delivering them to the customers around the world by using flights or ships or other appropriate vehicles. The delivery firm company sends the items information in order to update data in database of the server of delivery company. They will update the delivery information whenever the items arrive to their braches in different countries until they reach to the destinations. So, the customers can view the information on the website when and where their ordered items are arrived. (e) Flagging up and reorder levels of stock items After sending the ordered item, the website needs to update the item information. To make balance for the reorder level, they use the automatic flagging up system using the stock control software by giving notation on the server of the warehouse. So, the company can check balance level and decide whether they should reorder new books from other sources or not. (f) Required hardware for system To complete the system, they also use some kinds of hardware devices. They use Server for the main control processes for the stock. And they also need to use some kinds of not only security devices for the warehouse security but also special software to control the system and to prevent unauthorized access to data. It describes their balance of the stock and alert the flagging up reorder system buy using stock control software. Task 3 To implement the computerised stock control system used in warehouse the local area network (LAN) is conducted. The major requirements of LAN network are topologies and media. There are many topologies though only some are widely used. The most popular topologies are ring, bus and star topologies. In ring topologies, computers are connected by cables in a circle or ring form. Each computer is directly connected to the next, so no termination is required. In this topology, token passing method is used to transmit data in clock-wise direction. So every computer can transmit data fairly. It can prevent high-traffic and time-critical applications. So it is reliable and highly secure. But it uses fiber optic cables so cost is high and finds difficulties to install. In bus topology all computers are connected via a backbone, a cable segment. In bus topology, signals are sent as electrical parses. When they are sent, they travel along the cable in all directions. So, data collisions can occur when more than one computer transmit data simultaneously. Thus, occupying high-traffic is the major problem; otherwise, cheapness and ease of installation are advantages. In star topology, all components are connected by cable segments to a central device to communicate each other via it. It can share network resources and send and receive data from the computers in the network simultaneously because it handles multiple connections. So it is useful where high traffic occurs. It supports centralized management and the central server has a complete priority over other computers. But this topology requires a more involved cable installation and high cost. The access of the entire network also loses when the central device fails. To build a network we also need media. There are two groups of media; bounded and unbounded media. In bounded media, there are three types of cables; coaxial cable, twisted pair cable, and fiber-optic cable. Coaxial cable consists of two kinds- thin coaxial (10 Base2) and thick coaxial (10 Base5). There are two types of twisted pair cables; unshielded twisted pair cable (UTP) and shielded twisted pair cable (STP). The optical fiber cable contains two kinds; glass and plastic. The unbounded media or wireless connection technology contains Wi-Fi, and Wi-Max connection. Wi-Fi includes 802.11b and 802.11g at 2.4 GHz frequency and its speeds are between 11 Mbps and 54 Mbps, and 802.11a and 802.11n has 5 GHz frequency and 54 Mbps bandwidth. There are two versions of Wi-Max connection fixed Wi-Max (802.16-2004) and mobile Wi-Max (802.16e). The stock levels displayed in the website are based upon the sales figures which are in warehouse. Updating stock control system regularly can help the stock level. To support the stock control system a LAN network will be created in the warehouse. There are two types of networks; peer-to-peer one and server-based one. The server based LAN network is chosen to implement as it can handle a number of computers, more memory for a large database and extra peripheral devices such as printers; otherwise, peer-to-peer network can handle 10 or fewer workstations. To configure a server-based network, an appropriate topology and a suitable medium are used. The proper one for this network is star topology. Using central devices such as switches connected with cable segments, it supports centralized management for the entire network. It shares resources and access to clients simultaneously without traffic. Unshielded twisted pair cable is used as medium. It ranges into seven categories. Among them, category 5 is chosen because it is designed for 10 Mbps Ethernet whose speed is up to 1 gigabit. It can connect even 1024 nodes and can run 100 meters distance. It also provides ease of trouble shooting all nodes of the network. After configuring topology and medium, a server-based LAN is implemented. Firstly, the OSs is installed in the server computer. Then Active Directory Service (AD) is installed. So, it becomes a domain server which can control client nodes in the workgroup. There will be a network administrator as the authorized user of the server computer. This administrator will control security, access and user accounts of each client-computer user. Being centralized managed network, only server one can share resources but the client cannot. Data can only be updated, or deleted by the administrator who uses the server computer and not by the client. Thus the administrator can check and control the database using the information reported by clerks who provide data concerned with sales figures. Therefore, this database can offer up-to-date information for the stock control system because it is based on the sales figures. The computerized stock control system is being linked with the website via internet. So, regularly updating the data of the stock control system means the website shows the information deal with the status of the books items that are in ware-house. This makes customers easy to find the information they want and to order books by filling order form that displayed in company’s website. Task 4 The company will inform the staff of the warehouse about the information of the ordered books when they received confirmed orders and cost by bank or credit account from customers via their website. They also acknowledge the customers about the confirmation. The voucher numbers of the ordered books and the DNS of the courier’s website are also given. Processing Order in Warehouse After receiving the ordered report, the staff members in the warehouse prepare to deliver the stock items. First of all, they check to ensure whether the quantity of the stock level is complete or not. Then they prepare to send them to the local delivery company. They firstly put and pack the books by means of ordered quantity and titles in the packages or containers. Then they fix an RFID tag which contains an electronic serial number on each container. The information of the sent items is marked by means of an RFID reader which can detect the electronic signals of serial numbers of the books. Then the information is transferred into the server computer to update the data in database. Transferring stock to local courier company Then they transfer containers of books to the local courier firm by taking suitable vehicles which are fitted GPS (Global Position Service) system to point the routes and time taken of them and to acknowledge the company what time where they are. When the containers of books arrive to the delivery team, they are checked with RFID readers again to mark what time the delivery items are received. It makes ensure not only the stocks are prevented by theft of staff but also they are safely arrived and whether they are the correct ones or not. Delivering stocks by Courier Company The delivery team starts the delivered items entry into their website after checking them. Along the paths of wherever they deliver the stock until they reach to the destination, they regularly update information on their website. So, customers can check the delivery information via the website of the courier company if they want to track about their ordered books’ information. The delivery company delivers the ordered stock items according to the customers’ addresses and postal codes. If the addresses and postal codes indicate a customer is in local, the company uses cars to transport them. Otherwise, they firstly send by using shipping delivery to the foreign countries where the branches of their company are situated and they send to their destination addresses and postal codes at last. Updating data Each branch of the courier firm also reports to their main office and the office also return the information to the â€Å"Amazing Books† company until the ordered book items are received by the customers. The online book store company also updated the information in their company’s database in main server. Being linked with the server of the courier company, the information of the books in their website is also updated. So, the customers can see where the items they have ordered and when they will receive them by entering the voucher numbers of them on the website of the courier company. After the ordered books are transferred from the delivery company to the customers, the firm also reports to their main office again. The main office of the company also replies to the online book store company. And then the book store renews the data in database of the server in order to check the balance stock levels by means of automatically flagging up system. Task 5 â€Å"Amazing Books† online book company keeps in a large amount of book items in the company’s warehouse. The stock items in the warehouse are kept by staff members of its. To secure the warehouse and the books in it, a security management system is needed. This system is also required to prevent unauthorized access data of the company. The company should also think about the theft or access data without permission done by staff members of the company themselves. (a) Methods to prevent theft and monitor the staff To implement the security management system of the warehouse, both hardware and software are needed. At first, the local area network (LAN) will be created using Star topology to control the centralized management of the company’s LAN network. Furthermore, the network administrator should also manage the specific working hours, authorized access, and login passwords, etc of an individual staff. So, unauthorized access that aims getting company’s important data in database of the server dishonestly can be overcome. It can also prevent the fraud of staff. Moreover, there should be some plans to detect and prevent the theft of stock items in warehouse. The most appropriate thing to monitor inside the warehouse is CCTV cameras. They will let the administrator or manager watch inside the warehouse all the time. He or she can immediately know if theft is occurred. Besides, there should be some limitations at the entrance and exit of the warehouse. Using retina scanner at the entrance is a proper method. The scanner will sense the retina of each staff to separate if the person has the permission to enter into the warehouse or not. It will make the record of each and it will alarm if something doubtful is happened. An EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) should be fixed at the exit of the warehouse and everybody must be through when they leave the warehouse. It will detect each person using radio frequency technology and alarm when the staff takes the book items out without registering for despatched processes. (b) Adjusting the stock levels when theft occurs Before implementing the security management system of the warehouse, the stock levels of the books should be checked to ensure that the quantity of the stock before they are stored in it. When the books which are bought from different sources arrive to the warehouse, they are checked with RFID readers. Then the information of the books is transferred into the server computer as unique serial numbers of each. This event makes update the data in database. The server then stores the information of the books which includes quantity, books’ titles, and ISBN, etc. When the books are delivered, they are packed in containers which have an RFID tag and are rechecked with RFID readers again. Then checked data and data in database of the server are compared to confirm. If they are not same, the administrator can know the books are thieved by staff and he or she should review the security records. Automatic flagging up system also alerts when the quantity of books are less to acknowledge the administrator. So the administrator can check the balance level of the stocks and reorder new books from sources if necessary. Task 6 The report is produced in order to describe the recommendations of how to set up the computerised stock control system of the â€Å"Amazing Books† online books company. The summarising reviews for each procedure are as follows: Reviewing Task 1 The company investigates three online books websites via internet. They examine the features of the websites in details, i. e, the presentations of the books, selling and order information, delivery information, and discount information, etc. Then they will implement their own by using the facts which are based on the recommendations. Reviewing Task 2 The company explores four computerised stock control system websites. Then they set up their own computerised inventory control system in the large warehouse of the company. First of all, they will record the stock information by using RFID readers when the stocks arrive to the warehouse. Then they will transfer that information to the database of the server of the warehouse in order to update the data. The information in website will also keep updating because it is linked with the server of the company. When customers want to order books via website, they have to fill the order forms which contain the information deal with their addresses, postal codes, and bank or credit card account number. Then they will transfer the stocks to local courier company by appropriate vehicles. After that, they will update the information of books delivered in database of the server again. In the warehouse of the company, there will be an automatically flagging up system. They will fix this system to auto check the balance level and quantity of the stock. It will alert the company when the new stocks should be reordered. Reviewing Task 3 As the third step to implement the company’s stock control system, they will create a local area network (LAN) in the warehouse using suitable media and topology. The LAN will be set up as a server based one in order to centralized manage the whole network. The website of the company will be linked with the server so the information in website will always keep updating. Reviewing Task 4 After receiving the containers that contain books, the courier company will check stocks’ RFID tags with RFID readers and make records the books information. This information will be transferred into their company’s server computer to update data in database. As it is also linked with the website of their company, the delivery information will also update. The delivery company will always update the delivery information whenever the stocks arrive to their branches which are in foreign country. They will keep updating until they reach to their destination addresses. Customers can view what time at where their ordered books are via the website of the courier company. Reviewing Task 5 There will also be a plan to prevent thefts done by staff while the company is setting up their online book selling system and computerised stock control system. To prevent those events, the administrator will monitor the staff by using CCTV cameras. He or she will also use retina scanner at the entrance and EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) system at the exit of the warehouse. To prevent unauthorized access, the administrator will manage the specific working hours, authorized access, and login passwords, etc of an each staff member. The stock levels are record by RFID readers when they reached to the warehouse. That information will be transferred into server of the warehouse. When the books are delivered to the deliver firm, they are rechecked with RFID readers again and transferred into server in order to update the data of stock levels. There will be an automatic flagging up system to alarm to acknowledge the administrator. So the administrator can check the balance level of the stocks and reorder new books from sources. Reference Websites http://www.bookshopofindia.com http://www.boomerangbooks.com http://www.cherrythirsar.org http://www.isisasset.com http://www.trakersystems.com http://www.controlelectronic.com http://www.rfid-library.com http://www.dhl.com Books Title Guide to Networking Essentials ISBN 14188-3718-0 Author Name Greg Tomsho, Ed Tittel, David Johnson

Friday, October 25, 2019

Philosophy of Teaching Essays -- Teaching Teachers Education Essays

Philosophy of Teaching I have known for a long time now that I want to be a high school Spanish teacher. There were other considerations for a while, but none that lasted very long; they couldn’t supplant what I felt so strongly about. Because of this, I have had a long time to think about exactly what the profession means to me. In my opinion, any teacher should be driven primarily by the desire to share his passion for a subject with others. A Spanish teacher (for example) should love the language and the culture that his class will deal with. Of course, many who love these things love them but are not teachers; I feel that teachers are possessed of a particularly strong passion for their subjects that compels them to educate others. I am certain that, unfortunately, there are teachers who do not feel so strongly about what they will teach, and I am doubly certain that these are not good teachers. In my opinion, such passion is the most important aspect of a successful teacher’s personality. There is a second facet of a good teacher’s personality that is almost as crucial, in my opinion: the ability to relate to his students on a personal level. These teachers recognize that their students are not merely students but also young adults and that they therefore carry with them all the emotional baggage of adolescence. They do not view their students as objectives or sets of characteristics but as people, and they understa...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Business ethics and CSR

In the past time, the majority of enterprises regarded business ethics as internal regulations to comply with the rules of legal standards(Trevino and Nelson, 2010). However, the condition changes in modern times. Business ethics is more and more important to identify what it is right or wrong during the process of working or trading and so on(Wheelen and Hunger, 2011), which is closely related to the interests of stakeholders.Under the background, many companies recognize that they have to obtain more respect and trust of their consumers so as to be successful. As result, organizations pay increasing attention to their behaviors and corporate social responsibility (CSR) become a business principle for marketing behaviors with the increased public awareness about the role of enterprises in assisting to promote and practice business ethics in society and environment.In order to have a better understanding of business ethics and CSR, this report is going to logically identify business ethics and critically assessing its effect on an organization, identifying CSR and analyzing the lessons of the News Corporation scandal and the importance of CSR and then discussing the leadership during the process of promoting business ethics and CSR. Question 1: identifying business ethics and critically evaluating its effect on an organization 1. 1Identifying business ethicsCase and Smith (2012) commented that free market system cannot guarantee the efficiency, and an efficient free market economic system need enterprises with honesty, integrity, fairness, justice and other ethics to operate the market in addition to a valid property right and the legal system. The comment perfectly demonstrates the necessity and importance of business ethics in market, although it does not make enough introductions about the features of ethics. In their opinion, business ethics refers to moral principles which are used to regulate the behaviors of a business.In other words, Case and Smith admi tted that the same rules or regulations that distinguish the right or wrong of individual behaviors can also be applied to enterprises. This point explains the guidance of business ethics, which promotes corporations to pay more attention to the use of copyright, environmental issues and bribery. However, Case and Smith just cared about the enterprise itself and did not make an explanation about the relationship between corporations and stakeholders in the concept of business ethics.According to Lusch and Webster (2010), every company is not alone, and stakeholder analysis is important for the practices of business ethics during the process of operation and provides more useful information for perfecting business ethics in different markets. They considered that enterprises depend on employees, government, media, customers and business clients and so on (Lusch and Webster, 2010), so business ethics aims at working out a balance among all those factors and then making them serves cor porate objectives.It can be said that Lusch and Webster explained the affecting factors of business ethics and put forward a broader illustration, which is beneficial for corporations to regulate ethically in all aspects. But this report agrees that it is better to combine the views of Case and Lusch et al. as to the illustration of business ethics. From this point of view, this report considers business ethics is a moral principle to deal with the relationship among stakeholders. According to the above literature review, it is obvious that business ethics focuses on the moral standards of corporate policies and behaviors and the effect on stakeholders.It can be said the most significant points of business ethics refer to identifying reasonable business actions, balancing stakeholder interests, increasing corporate values and building accountability within the organization. From this point of view, business ethics is a performance of applied ethics in essence. 1. 2 Critically evalua ting the effect of business ethics on an organization Business ethics is regarded as an important factor that affecting corporate performance, so it is necessary to evaluate its influence on an organization.But it needs to be pointed out that business ethics also has positive and negative effect(Carroll and Shabana, 2010). On the first place, business ethics is beneficial for organizations to build distinct competence(Pearce and Doh, 2012). For example, as the hotel industry giant, the Hilton has developed rapidly since its inception in 1928 and its branch offices are spread all over the world(Hill, 2011). On the issue of the development of the Hilton, it is inevitable to mention the hotel's internal culture and requirements â€Å"Today are you smiling yet?†Hilton Hotel strongly embodies the â€Å"customer is God† and â€Å"home away from home† principle in facilities and services, internal culture and good business ethics make customers experience the â€Å"ho me†, which won the majority of customers; meanwhile the hotel becomes more competitive and corporate profits grow year after year. On the second place, it can protect the interests of stakeholders(Orts and Strudler, 2009). Business ethics, as a corporate soft power, reflects in all aspects of business, especially in the quality of products and services quality.According to the Haier Group's success and Sanlu milk powder incident(Bouee, 2010), lack of business ethics hurts stakeholders and corporate brand value is also enormously impacted. On the third place, good application to business ethics increases corporate scores to explore foreign market(Kolk and Van Tulder, 2010). In modern times, business ethics has become one of the most important parts for international business. In other words, the international market needs ethical companies. From this point of view, unsaturated international market gives priority to enterprises that have a good record for business ethics.Just as Haier, it tried its best to protect the interests of customers and then it was favored by the international market. In addition, business ethics is beneficial to influence the behaviors and words of leaders and then cultivate ethical leadership owing to the formation of a good working environment. However, there are also some negative influences for business ethics. For one thing, business ethics puts forward a high demand for corporate capability(Carroll and Shabana, 2010). On one hand, the application of business ethics needs the support of adequate capitals.In the short-term, business ethics may increase the total cost of organizations. On the other hand, business ethics can be different in different countries, so the organization needs excellent adaptability. For another, business ethic may bring about capital risks for companies that have weak financial basis(Skouloudis et al. , 2010). The application to business ethic needs adequate financial support, so the ethics may threat en the operations of businesses when the corporate is lack of capitals.Question 2: analyzing the lessons of the News Corporation scandal and the importance of CSR 2.1 analyzing the lessons of the News Corporation scandal The News Corporation is one of the world's largest media groups, and one of the world’s largest and most international integrated media companies(Yoon, 2013). On July 15, 2011, the British â€Å"Daily Mirror† quoted the news of an anonymous New York police officer, and said News Corp. ’s â€Å"World News† reporter tried to bride their telephone information of 9. 11 victims and tap their voicemail(Lewis, 2012). Facing strong public pressure, the News Corp was forced to shut down â€Å"News of the World.†In order to grab the exclusive news, the News Corp took a lot of â€Å"extraordinary measures† and then lost more. The News Corporation scandal brings about many lessons for corporate management. In the first place, it is nece ssary to strengthen media self-regulation and professional ethics to further strengthen the social responsibility and professionalism. Wiretapping scandal stems from interests and competition-driven within the Western media(Simons, 2013), in order to expand distribution and increase influence, they even broken professional ethics and social moral bottom line.As a result, they would pay their actions. In the second place, corporates should behave within laws and ethical regulations. The eavesdropping behavior of â€Å"World News† not only violates the self-regulatory codes of British newspaper industry, but also apparently breaks down the law and human rights. It is crazy to pursuit irritating news regardless of the limitation of law and moral constraints, finally embarking on a dead end. Thus, the â€Å"great† is not self-appointed, and â€Å"press freedom† beyond legal and moral is shameful(Sharma, 2009).In the third place, the News Corporation scandal motivate s other organizations to pay more attention to CSR instead of just thinking of profit. In order to absorb in as many customers as possible, the News Corp ignored the original target of media corporations and took all actions to obtain explorative news regardless of the interest of its stakeholders. The organization is not alone in society, and it needs to undertake the theme of serving people. Only in this way, can it become popular and successful.Just like IKEA, Novo Nordisk and other organizations, they prefer to work out a CSR policy after a media scandal(Jiraporn et al. , 2013). 2. 2 analyzing the importance of CSR Firstly, CSR is important for corporate financial performance according to the News Corp scandal(Inoue and Lee, 2011). Just as Inoue and Lee (2011) said, CSR is a tool to increase corporate long-term profits through a little increase of cost in short-term. They emphasized the long-term benefits of CSR and excessive attention to short-term profits may lead to a failure .For example, the profits of the News Corp dropped sharply after eavesdropping behavior. In contrary, the event â€Å"smashing refrigerator† of Haier won the trust and support of customers, got a better reputation and more performance, although it increased the total cost in a period at some degree. Thus, CSR is meaningful to improve corporate core competitiveness, inspire staff to be more enthusiastic and creative and attract more financial institutions to provide funds, thus contributing to the long-term business performance of enterprises.Secondly, the application of CSR is closely related to corporate sustainability(Choi et al. , 2010). Just as Gomez-Haro et al. (2011) once said, CSR is a standard for an organization to measure the influence of corporate decisions and activities on society and natural environment. They emphasized that strategic CSR is important for an organization to obtain the dominate power to occupy marketplace and develop a sustainable future. Their v iews stress the relationship between CSR and sustainability, and explain the value of CSR during the process of operation, except that it did not point out the focus of CSR.In the economic system of high globalization, during the pursuit of business performance, environmental pollution, product quality, labor safety and other issues has been unable to be separated from enterprises(Tan-Mullins and Mohan, 2013). According to the News Corp scandal, it is obvious that stakeholder interests cannot be ignored and CSR has become the main trend of business continuity. Undertaking social responsibility for stakeholders, enterprises can set up a good corporate image except for enhancing cohesion and core competitiveness, thus ensuring the sustainable development of enterprises.Major food safety accidents of Melamine, excessive odor emissions of Michelin tire factory(Cobert, 2009), Foxconn sweatshops event(Watch, 2010) and so on all prove the importance of CSR to corporate sustainability. Thir dly, CSR is valuable to balance the relationship between economic development and social harmony(Carroll and Shabana, 2010). Smith (2010) said all businesses should aim at giving back to those who make corporate objectives come true. In his opinion, CSR is a performance to return the community through volunteerism or sponsorships or other causes.What corporations do should comply with the situation of community; only in this way can corporations be sustainable and successful. In other words, CSR pays much attention to common progress, and persists to keep the consistency between economic development and social harmony. The News Corp excessively emphasized economic profits and ignored the demands of social development, and then it paid. In contrast, as a company equipped with a strong sense of social responsibility, Motorola stressed the company's positive interaction with their environment(Blocker et al., 2011), which gains high assessment of the international community.Question 3: discussing the leadership during the process of promoting business ethics and CSR Following the News Corporate scandal and other business scandals, the society has upgraded the standards for corporates that expect to establish great power. Just as Qualman (2012) once said, businesses have to work with transparency in order to obtain long-term activities from consumers and attention to the consistency of corporate words and behaviors should be stressed.Therefore, ethical leadership must be emphasized during the process of promoting business ethics and CSR(Becker, 2013). It is necessary to point out that ethical leadership is a â€Å"soft† leadership and it focuses on making use of reasonable amount of authority in every condition to solve issues(O'Toole and Mayer, 2013). Ethical leadership is beneficial to cultivate great corporate culture, and put the principles of business ethics and CSR into corporate environment(Sheldon and Park, 2011), which makes employees feel the value of ethics and CSR at anywhere.From the point of ethical leadership, leaders need to regulate themselves according to ethics and then influence others to follow the regulations of ethics and CSR. Business ethics, ethical leadership and CSR should become inseparable concepts during leader’s management(Ardichvili and Jondle, 2012). Corporate leaders have both external effect and internal effect, so how they behave is closely related with the interests of consumers, employees, suppliers, government and other stakeholders.Protection for stakeholders is an important standard to judge the attention of a company to business ethics and CSR, which also proves the value of ethical leadership when promoting ethics and CSR. What’s more, appropriate social responsibility orientation of leaders makes great contribution to fulfilling business ethics and CSR(Sharma et al. , 2011), so it is necessary to display the value of social responsibility orientation during the process of promot ing business ethics and CSR.In other words, leaders have to regulate their social responsibility orientation in leadership framework and make use of this orientation to promote business ethics and CSR(Crittenden et al. , 2011). Wheelen and Hunger (2010) considered that, as the firm's major decision-makers, business leaders have more opportunities for businesses to determine the tone of business ethics, the degree of fulfillment of CSR has a great relationship with the value orientation of business leaders. From this point of view, leaders have to try their best to comply their social responsibility orientation with the regulations of business ethics and CSR.In addition, leaders should provide guidance for important corporate actions and make all operations suitable to business ethics and CSR so as to gain more support and expand the influence of business ethics and CSR(Brunk, 2010). Conclusion According to the above analysis to business ethics, CSR and leadership, it is obvious that business ethics is quite valuable for expanding its fame, absorbing in more consumers and exploring foreign markets and so on, but it needs to be pointed that it may increases the total cost in short-term and bring about capital risks sometimes.It is also apparent that CSR is meaningful for corporate financial performance, sustainability and the relationship between economic development and environmental protection. In addition, leadership plays an indispensable role in promoting business ethics and CSR, but it may also ruin corporate ethics and CSR owing to unreasonable utilization to ethical leadership. Therefore, it can be concluded that business ethics and leadership should be paid attention and appropriate ethical leadership should display its guidance role.In our company, there are a lot of employees and factories that produce tires. It is known that rubber releases bad gas and factories discharge polluted water, which both damages the health of workers and environment. Under this background, if the health of workers is cared and strict regulations are worked out for pollution, our company will get more support from workers and the society. Recommendation After theoretic analysis, it is necessary to provide some realistic and feasible recommendations. On one hand, business ethics and CSR should be taken into strategic management.When working out some economic policies or strategic plans, companies should consider whether the policy or plan hurts the interest of stakeholders, damage natural principles and excessively emphasizes economic target regardless of social development or not. On the other hand, establish a monitoring and evaluation mechanism is recommended in the leadership team. This system is mainly used to supervise leaders’ actions and regulars assess their behaviors according to corporate ethics and CSR so as to strengthen ethical leadership. (Word accounts: 2699 words)